Ethiopia, in northeastern Africa, is the second most populated nation in Africa. It is famous for its dramatic landscape and its unusual history. The nation sits on the “Horn of Africa,” a vast, roughly L-shaped landmass separated from the Arabian Peninsula by the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Its northern areas lie on the Great African Rift, an enormous, active split in Earth’s tectonic plates. Its southern regions include some of the highest mountains on the continent. Ethiopia was the only African nation to successfully resist European colonization and remain independent through the 18th and 19th centuries. Its diverse ethnic groups are often characterized by a fierce sense of independence.